The U.S. prison population is at an all-time high. For the first time in history, more than one in every 100 adults in America is in jail or prison. A Pew Center study says the record number of Americans behind bars was reached at the start of 2008. The Federal Bureau of Prisons and 36 states posted increases in prison populations in 2007. Texas surpassed California last year as the nations prison population leader, even though both states registered a drop in inmates.